Antinomy of Rules
absolutely no existing rules to choose rules logically. If there were an independent rule
to choose rules, this rule would be combined or merged with the rules available to be
chosen to form a new rule. So we can conclude:
We can never make a program to choose other
programs, so AI can not be fully programmed.
What we can do to our material world is to
combine a rule with other rules to make a new rule or program. This way allows us to make
more and better programs to be chosen, however many many things in our life can not be
fully programmed. AI should be designed to deal with those things that have not been
programmed yet or things unprogrammable including to choose rules.
Anything without intelligence can never have the
ability to choose rules, or anything that can is a life or AL with intelligence. Only high
lives have the ability to choose rules with an instinct judgment or fuzzy values instead
of a precise rule.
An automation system of non-life or non-AL can
not have more than one rules in any case. What we can do to it is to give it a better
This system may change the data part of the rule,
but this behavior is included in the rule that allows the system to change it within the
function of the rule.
Humans often have to make choices in life
experience. We do not have any precise rules to choose rules in general. Humans and other
high lives often use instinct or values to do it. Instinct or value system is neither a
rule nor a program. Instinct and values are inner drives to orient thinking and behaviors.
To choose rules needs intelligence, but to
execute rules does not need intelligence. Thinking and reasoning is not an execution of
rules, instead, it is trying to choose rules or choose rules to make a new rule.
To choose rules is something fuzzy, but rules
themselves are precise.
To find rules, to change rules and to make rules
are the same as to choose rules in principle, because they include the necessity to choose
A rule that is able to change itself is feasible,
but it is also in the antinomy of rules if it needs to find other rules to change itself.
The function or manifestation of a rule can change. A computer virus can change the
function of itself, but the change is included in the rule or program.
- Any rules are the same as their opposite rules, the
difference is what we describe it in two opposite ways. A rule that has a concrete
relation to other rules forms a new rule together with the involved rules. The relation is
logic gates in computer systems.