4. Hierarchy of recognition
Recognition is the capacity of cognition and judgment on senses. The level of recognition ability represents the level of intelligence. There are three levels of recognition, instrument level: physical sensing, animal level: fuzzy discrimination and human level: emotional cognition.
Physical sensing is the magnitude cognition of physical, chemical and biological information received. At this level, visual sensing includes brightness, color, size, shape, distance, moving state, etc.; auditory sensing includes loudness, frequency, orientation, waveform, etc.; tactile sensing includes temperature, thermal conductivity, hardness, viscosity, size, shape, force, motion, etc.; olfactory and gustatory sensing includes the makeup of substances or chemical composition. Almost all scientific apparatuses are used for this sensing, and on the combination of modern technologies with the computer, they have greatly exceeded this ability of human senses for a long time. The characteristics of the recognition at this level is that the objects are independent, events are precisely repeatable, experience and intelligence are unnecessary and the process can be completely digital-programmed. So it is the lowest level of recognition.
Fuzzy discrimination is to distinguish useful information among a great amount of complex things, cognize the correlation of the information received with past memory or experiences and eliminate irrespective information. At this level, visual discrimination is to distinguish from a complicated background specified persons and things or those which the subject has experienced, and auditory discrimination is to distinguish from a noisy background specified sounds, specially the voices spoken by different people. Fuzzy discrimination can tell who and what among a lot. This human's easy-to-do is too hard for the computer to do. Now the computer can only have the ability to recognize fuzzy objects of a single kind by means of contrasting records, for example, finger print, graph and voice. The computer can not have a break-through in fuzzy discrimination simply because it can not actuate correlation memory for its own. The recognition at this level is more or less close to the recognition ability of pets, livestock, birds and insects, so it can not bring about higher level intelligence.
Emotional cognition is at the top level of recognition and completely perceptual. This recognition is common in the information intercourse or communication among people. It includes the meanings of literal words or characters, language, song, music, face expression, appearance, smell and comportment, and even the significance of humanities or esthetics in natural phenomena, events, environments and articles. This overruns the capacity of fuzzy discrimination in the initial stage of artificial intelligence and attains to the capacity of artificial life of high intelligence. To take voice recognition as an example, low level can tell the sense of sound, middle level can tell what sound is spoken and who is speaking and the high level can tell the indication, emotion and attitude of the speaker by understanding the content meanings, tone, stress and rhythm. The computer needs human emotions to possess this recognition at this level, thus it proves that high intelligence is fully relative to emotion.